Hyperkalemia ie high pottasium levels in the blood more than 5.o mEq/l is caused due to various factors . Some of them are
1) Factitious hyperkalemia : due to sample hemolysis and breakdown of the cells.
2)increased intake of potassium through diet , tabs, or iv fluids
3) Increased cellular release of K : like in insulin deficiency, tumor lysis, drugs like beta blockers etc
4) Decreased excretion: Renal failure, etc
The treatment depends on the symptoms and K levels. Acute treatment is needed if ecg changes are present along with symptoms. The mainstay of treatment is to stop k intake, increase the loss of k through the urine and protect the heart. The medications used for the same are calcium gluconate, regular insulin and bicarbonate and also beta agonist like ventolin and diurectics like furosemide.
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