Yes, it is possible that a fall may cause an acute injury of the shoulder, particularly dislocation, fracture or lesiesion of the rotator cuff, which is a group of tendons that support the shoulder. These tendons can be injured also during weight lifting, when playing sports with a lot of throwing, after repetitive use over a long time or suffer degenerative changes with the aging process. Also a fall with the arm extended trying to stop the fall with the hand is a common mechanism on producing Scaphoid fractures of the hand and wrist in young adults.
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