Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an auto-immune chronic medical condition that occurs when the pancreas, an organ in the abdomen, produces very little or no insulin. This auto-immune disease occurs when the immune system attacks the pancreas gland as it recognizes the gland as foreign tissue and destroys the gland. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body to regulate blood sugar. Without insulin, blood glucose (sugar) levels become higher than normal. Type 1 diabetes typically occurs in a young patient (previously known as juvenile onset), but has now been recognized later in life. It is treated by insulin replacement in the form of subcutaneous injections. Type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs when the pancreas produces insufficient amounts of insulin and/or the body's tissues become resistant to normal or even high levels of insulin. This results in high blood glucose (sugar) levels. Type 2 diabetes (insulin resistance) is associated with obesity. It typically occurs later in life (previously known as adult onset), but can occur at any age, especially in childhood obesity. It can be treated by diet alone, oral hypoglycaemic drugs or insulin injections. .
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