The transmission of Gonorrhea and Chlamyida

Patient

Q: Hello, how can Gonorrhea or Chlamyida spread without ejaculation during sex from male to female? I have been reading about the contact of mucuous membranes, but what does this exactly mean? Does infected fluid need to be exchanged in order for possible infection or can it be transmitted without fluid? If fluid is required, what kind of fluid from the infected male does this pertain to?

Symptoms:  STD
Doctor

A:   Thank you for your question.
Gonorrhea and Chlamydia are bacterial sexually transmitted infections which can be contracted during unprotected sexual intercourse or oral sex. Besides being transmitted in seminal fluid, these bacteria populate the mucus secretions that lubricate the vaginal canal during sexual arousal. In males, chlamydia and gonorrhea can be transmitted in preejaculatory fluid and urine. Furthermore, the bacteria can be present on the surface of the penis and at the urethral meatus, and it can be transmitted from here as well. Treatment of both of these infections can be successful with a course of antibiotic medication. Prompt evaluation and treatment is required to prevent severe complications of these infections such as infection of the pelvic structures and uterus which is referred to as Pelvic inflammatory disease. Please see your doctor.

Thank you for consulting AskTheDoctor.com

Comments / Follow Ups

Patient: When you say "surface of the penis", is his referring to the exterior surface? What is the urethral meatus? Thanks!
Patient: Does this mean that this bacteria can live outside of the urethra if on the glans penis, foreskin, and shaft? Also, if it has infected the urethra, does it automatically live in the urethral meatus as well?

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